Crimean War

 

The Crimean War, 18531856 (October 1853 – February 1856), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire and later Sardinia.

The Crimean War had its roots in both religious differences and powerful countries asserting control of the Baltic region. In the years leading up to the war, France, Russia and Britain were all competing for influence in the Middle East, particularly with the Ottoman empire of Turkey. The British and French were concerned about Russian expansion in the region and the potential threat to their trade routes. The Ottoman empire allowed access to the Middle East and Asian trade routes.

In Britain, the Crimean War is principally remembered the Charge of the Light Brigade, maladministration of the British army, and the pioneering work of the nurse Florence Nightingale.

 

Roger Fenton's image of  the Valley of the Shadow of Death where the Charge of the Light Brigade took place in 1855.

Roger Fenton’s image of the Valley of the Shadow of Death where the Charge of the Light Brigade took place in 1855, covered in round shot and shells.

Public Opinion.

The Crimean war was arguably the first media war, where technological advances combined with some brave reporting, gave the public  a more immediate picture of the unfolding war. The invention of the electric telegraph enabled news to travel across the continent in hours, not weeks.

One noted reporter was The Times correspondent William Howard Russell, who sent first-hand dispatches from the front line and refused to be imbedded and censored by the British army. His reports highlighted military mismanagement and administrative incompetence and criticized Lord Raglan, the commander of the British troops in Crimea. Raglan’s failure to deliver orders with sufficient clarity caused the fateful Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava.

Another intrepid reporter was the photographer Roger Fenton, whose photographs brought the Crimean battlefields to life.

 

The occasion of Queen Victoria visiting the wounded who had just returned from the Crimea was taken by the satirical magazine Punch to draw attention to the failures of government and military departments connected with the Crimean War. These caricatures highlight the incompetence of the Army, the Royal Navy, and the Treasury Commissariat Branch in providing adequate medical and food supplies for the Crimean troops.

 

Reports of appalling suffering of the sick and wounded soldiers also had an effect on the British public. Far more soldiers died from sickness or treatable wounds than battlefield injuries, leading to a number of organizations and individuals to set out for the war zone to help the soldiers.

Public opposition to the handling of the war played a large part in bringing down the prime minister, Lord Aberdeen’s government in January 1855.

 

Timeline of key events in the Crimean War.

  • 1853 (19 April). Russia claims protectorate over Christians in Turkey.
  • 1853 (21 May). Turkey rejects Russian ultimatum.
  • 1853 (2 July). Russian army enters Ottoman empire territory crossing the River Pruth from Romania into Moldavia.
  • 1853 (4 October). Turkey declares war on Russia.
  • 1853 (30 November). Battle of Sinop. Turkish fleet destroyed.
  • 1854 (12 March). Alliance formed between Britain, France and Turkey.
  • 1854 (27 March). Britain declares war on Russia.
  • 1854 (28 March). France declares war on Russia.
  • 1854 (30–31 August). Siege of Petropavlovsk, on the Pacific coast.
  • 1854 (20 September) Battle of Alma.
  • 1854 (25 September 1854 to 8 September 1855). Siege of Sevastopol.
  • 1854 (25 October). Battle of Balaclava. Results in the infamous Charge of the Light Brigade.
  • 1854 (5 November). Battle of Inkerman.
  • 1855 (26 January). Piedmont (Sardinia) joins in Crimean War against Russia.
  • 1855 (31 January). In Britain, Lord Aberdeen’s government falls.
  • 1855 (5 February). Lord Palmerston forms a new government in the aftermath of Lord Aberdeen’s failure.
  • 1855 (17 February). Battle of Eupatoria.
  • 1855 ( 16 August). Battle of the Chernaya (aka Traktir Bridge).
  • 1855 (May to November). Sea of Azoff naval campaign.
  • 1855 (June to 28 November). Siege of Kars.
  • 1856 (29 January). Britain introduces the Victoria Cross medal.
  • 1856 (25 February – 30 March). Peace Congress of Paris.
  • 1856 (15 April). Britain, France and Austria guarantee integrity and independence of Turkey.

 

Further Reading.

 

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